Public and Social

From its inception, Genesis has worked across the public/private divide. This is also true at team level. We strongly believe in the same specialist teams servicing public and private sector clients. The benefits of the ensuing cross-pollination are particularly evident in our work where the market meets the state. Examples are improving sector regulation outcomes, market development strategies sponsored by the public sector, socio-economic impact assessments and PPP transaction advice. In all three cases our understanding of the public sector and the market improves the quality of our solutions.

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Expertise Areas

Economic impact assessment

In economics there are always trade-offs. Changes in policies, laws, and regulations, and every government intervention creates both positive and negative impacts, winners and losers.

Good government requires that these impacts are mapped and understood, so that responsive policy can be crafted to maximise the positive while minimising the negative.

This requires analysis that is independent, rigorous, balanced and fair, analysis that understands the power of markets and pain of social challenges equally, and is not swayed by vested interests of lobby groups.

Genesis works across the continent with governments, law-makers, and the private sector to provide this analysis. We help our clients to understand potential economic, social, environmental and health impacts of policy and legislation on markets and people.

Our reputation as leading economic impact experts is built on rigorous, fact-based analysis that is independent, robust, persuasive and which retains credibility with all parties.

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Competition economics

We offer clients a comprehensive range of expert economic services in the area of competition law, and remain the provider of choice for most top law firms when they need to retain expert economists to advise on critical matters. Our application of rigorous economic analysis, using quantitative and conceptual approaches, has resulted in blue-chip companies across Africa routinely relying on us for expert advice and support when they interact with competition authorities.

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Health systems strengthening

Through user-centred design and collaborative approaches, our team works to build capacity and empower system users to carry out their work.

We consider the principles of organisational and behaviour change to institutionalise desired behaviours among users – from clients to healthcare professionals to the broader public.

Our technical support is tailored to meet the local needs of users thereby addressing critical gaps in capacity.

Health financing, costing and economics

Sustainable financing and the achievement of value for money in health interventions are increasingly recognised as key pillars in achieving the sustainable development goals for health and universal healthcare. At a time when many countries face large cuts to donor funding and competing demands for domestic resources, we provide technical support to decision makers in navigating this new reality.

Our team draws on multi-disciplinary skills in public financial management, health finance, costing, efficiency studies and other economic analyses, to inform health-financing policies, help build resilient health systems and public financial-management capacities, leading to improved healthcare in the region.

Monitoring and evaluation

Genesis provides a full range of monitoring and evaluation services that include the design, review and support of M&E systems and evaluations of programmes, strategies and policies. Our aim is to inform the design, management and allocation of funds to generate better decisions and outcomes, as well as to provide greater value for money.

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Regulatory economics

Genesis is also a leading provider of regulatory economics advice, offering the full spectrum of expert economic and regulatory accounting services to governments, regulators and private firms. We have played a central role in critical policy and regulatory debates across numerous sectors.  

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Trade

We offer the full spectrum of expert economic support and advice in litigated and contested processes. Our diverse litigation experience enables us to provide rigorous and legally defendable analysis, advice and testimony for clients in a variety of legal processes, including damages, international trade disputes, and other arbitration and High Court proceedings.

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Projects

Unpacking key drivers of SA enterprise development success

Project name:
Impact evaluation on selected enterprise development projects

Service:
Monitoring and evaluation

Sector:
Public and Social

Area of Expertise:
Evaluation & impact assessment

Client:
The Government Technical Advisory Centre (National Treasury)

Date:
2018

Country:
South Africa


The Jobs Fund is a R9-billion challenge fund, launched by the South African National Treasury in 2011, that aims to catalyse job creation in South Africa.

The fund operates through four distinct funding windows:

  1. Enterprise development (ED),
  2. Infrastructure investment
  3. Institutional capacity building
  4. Support for work seekers.

The ED window, which makes up approximately 60% of the fund’s portfolio, is aimed at partnering with the public and private sector to establish or expand ED programmes that incubate and grow job-creating enterprises across a variety of sectors. The Jobs Fund is now in its eighth funding cycle.

In order to explore and capture lessons around which ED models work best and why, as well as to better understand the impact that has been achieved through the ED window to date, the Jobs Fund appointed Genesis to conduct a comprehensive review of the entire ED portfolio and an impact evaluation of three selected ED projects. The three projects selected for evaluation were:

  • Craft Design Institute (CDI)
  • CuraFin Owner Driver Programme
  • Microsoft BizSpark.

In analysing the ED portfolio as a whole, it emerged that there was significant variation in the type of support offered by different ED models falling under the same name (for example “incubator” and “accelerator”). This posed a particular problem when attempting to compare different ED programmes and draw conclusions about which models work well, and in which contexts.

To mitigate this problem, the evaluation team identified a set of five core support elements that are common across all ED programmes, and used this as the analytical framework, by which to compare and contrast different ED programmes. This provides a degree of granularity not possible when simply categorising by type of model. The five ED elements were identified as:

  • Access to markets
  • Access to finance
  • Access to infrastructure
  • Provision of business development service
  • Training and mentorship.

The Jobs Fund has subsequently adopted this framework to guide the selection of projects during its current and future funding rounds.Together, the evaluation and portfolio review has produced insights into the relevance, effectiveness, scalability and replicability of ED models that are applicable to a variety of audiences including ED practitioners, SMMEs, governments and funders of ED programmes. These findings and recommendations have been documented in a set of best-practice guidelines for ED, available at the link below.

Jobs Fund Enterprise Development Learning Brief

Genesis counts cost of lifestyle diseases for Gauteng government

Project name:
Burden of lifestyle diseases on the public health sector in Gauteng

Service:
Behavioural Science

Sector:
Health
Public and Social

Client:
Gauteng Office of the Premier, Planning Division

Date:
2018

Country:
South Africa


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of lifestyle are becoming the leading cause of death in most regions of the world.

South Africa faces a quadruple burden of disease: the HIV/AIDS epidemic paired with a high burden of TB, high rates of maternal and child mortality, high levels of violence and injuries, and a growing burden of NCDs. NCDs are disproportionately affecting poor people living in urban settings. The NCDs drive a rising demand for chronic-disease care and pose an increasing burden on the health system.

The Gauteng Office of the Premier’s Planning Division contracted Genesis Analytics to determine the health and financial effects of NCDs on Gauteng’s health system for 2017-2030 and to recommend policies and best practices to address the growing burden in Gauteng.

Genesis developed a model to project the size and profile of the Gauteng population, prevalence of the selected risk factors and NCDs, and costs borne by the Gauteng public health system.

Our projections show that by 2030 the number of NCD cases in Gauteng will increase by 42% to 4.5 million. There will be high levels of morbidity (2.1 million disability-adjusted life years) and mortality (65 700 deaths) because of NCDs.

This high burden has significant associated costs. NCDs account for nearly 40% of healthcare spending in Gauteng. This spending will lead to a 39% increase over 13 years to R19.2 billion in 2030, without adjusting for inflation. The projected NCD costs are expected to outpace Gauteng Department of Health budget increases.

Genesis prioritised a number of “best buys” (according to the World Health Organisation) to address the health and financial burden in Gauteng, which would bolster the efforts of the National Department of Health. Specifically the province should invest in mass-media campaigns to promote behaviour change and awareness of a healthy diet and physical activity.

This is a cost-effective intervention and the upfront investment will ultimately result in long-term savings and benefits for the province. For NCDs Gauteng needs to develop well-prioritised, efficient and effective treatment and rehabilitation services for chronic-disease care.

Commission levels playing field on school uniforms

Project name:
Assistance to the Competition Commission with a financial assessment of potential excessive pricing in the provision of school uniforms

Service:
Competition economics

Sector:
Education
Public and Social

Area of Expertise:
Abuse of dominance and prohibited practices

Client:
Competition Commission of South Africa

Date:
2017

Country:
South Africa


The Competition Commission of South Africa initiated a complaint in January 2017 against direct suppliers of school uniforms following allegations of possible abuse of dominance and restrictive practices in the supply of school uniforms across the country. The allegations were that certain schools or other suppliers had concluded exclusive supply agreements and were charging excessive prices for school uniforms to the detriment of parents and guardians.

Genesis was appointed by the commission to undertake a detailed assessment of the allegations against school-uniform retailers for excessive pricing. Genesis's assessment involved developing a financial model that calculated economic costs for over 10 000 school-uniform stock, keeping units from eight of the largest school-uniform retailers in South Africa.

The model also calculated the mark-up on economic cost, gross margin and ROCE (return on capital employed) for each school-uniform retailer. Our results showed that prices were significantly above economic costs for two retailers and materially above economic costs for two others.

Genesis also found that the returns on capital employed were significantly higher that the weighted average cost of capital for five of the eight school-uniform retailers, which supported a finding that the market for school uniforms was not competitive.

This finding motivated the commission to engage proactively with the industry to phase out exclusive supply arrangement and promote a more competitive market in the sale of school uniforms.

This engagement prompted the Independent Schools Association of Southern Africa (Isasa) to pledge that:

• uniforms would be made as generic as possible;

• schools would have multiple suppliers; and

• supplier contracts would not operate in perpetuity.

Schools urged to stick to uniform guidelines

Raising the drinking age to 21: Pros and cons

Project name:
Evaluating the economic, health and social impacts of the proposed Liquor Amendment Bill, 2017

Service:
Economic impact assessment
Shared value and corporate impact
Regulatory economics and accounting

Sector:
Health
Manufacturing
Public and Social

Area of Expertise:
Socio-economic and regulatory impact assessment
Corporate impact
Financial modelling
Impact of regulatory decisions

Client:
National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC)

Date:
2017

Country:
South Africa


Most South Africans do not drink alcohol yet the consumption per capita is extremely high by international standards. In other words, those who do drink, drink to excess. Binge drinking is typical and levels of youth drinking are also high.

Based on this, government (led by the Department of Trade and Industry and supported by the Department of Health) proposed amendments to the national Liquor Act, 2003, including:

  • Raising the legal drinking age from 18 to 21;
  • Banning alcohol advertising;
  • Introducing vicarious liability for manufacturers, distributors and retailers of alcohol.

Genesis was asked by the National Economic and Development Labour Council (NEDLAC) to conduct an independent study on the likely economic, health and social impacts of proposals.

The team produced the most comprehensive review to date of the alcohol industry and of alcoholic consumption patterns. It found that South Africa faced four main challenges.

First, while most South Africans do not drink those who do, drink to excess - thus heavy binge drinking is a big challenge.

Second, there is a worryingly early uptake of alcohol by children and high levels of binge drinking by teens and young people. This is particularly dangerous for the cognitive development of the brain, which is only complete at 24.

Third, much hazardous drinking occurs in the large unlicensed sector.

Finally, we found evidence that existing liquor laws are poorly enforced.

Using seven approaches to estimate impact, we found that the proposals would reduce consumption of between 3.2% and 7.4%. This was also in line with the views of the major alcohol companies.

The proposals will help to bring down levels of hazardous drinking over time, slow the uptake of drinking by young people and create public health savings of up to R1.9 billion a year. We also estimated that about 185 lives a year would be saved from alcohol-related traffic fatalities.

We further estimated that the alcohol industry would create fewer jobs (between 645 and 1 500 fewer jobs in the next 10 years). The advertising industry would lose about R400 million (about 1% of its current revenue), and the media would lose about R800 million in revenue. Hardest hit would be SABC, e.tv and Multichoice.

Moreover, advertising spending by the bigger liquor companies will move from above-the-line to below-the-line marketing like store promotions, events, and competitions. This would crowd out smaller firms that tend to use below-the-line marketing, which would negatively affect competition in the alcohol industry.

Genesis’s technical inputs across three practices produced a rigorous, independent and objective study that provided the social partners and the government with facts and evidence to further debate the merits of the amendments.

Genesis’s report provides a full and balanced view of the pros and cons, in line with our company purpose to help leaders make better decisions, fairly and fully informed.

Why Nedlac wants a new study to quantify cost of liquor

Government wants to ban liquor ads

Full report

Genesis evaluates Jobs Fund's on-lending projects

Project name:
Case study on an enterprise development project

Service:
Monitoring and evaluation

Sector:
Public and Social

Area of Expertise:
Evaluation & impact assessment

Client:
National Treasury

Date:
2017

Country:
South Africa


The Jobs Fund is a R9-billion multi-year challenge fund that assists partners pilot innovative approaches to job creation. 

Through its enterprise development-funding window, the Jobs Fund has supported several on-lending projects where partners borrow with the aim of lending to small, medium and micro-sized enterprises (SMMEs) that are unable to get credit. 

Allowing SMMEs to grow is one of the anticipated means to create jobs and is supported by the Jobs Fund. 

The Jobs Fund has contracted Genesis Analytics to conduct project-level evaluations of the Anglo Gold Ashanti and Anglo American Sebenza Funds. The fund seeks to form a case study that will unpack factors that contribute to the success, or reveal the failures, of on-lending for these projects.

Genesis studies why 30% of SA births go unregistered

Project name:
Implementation evaluation of the birth registration programme

Service:
Monitoring and evaluation

Sector:
Public and Social
Health

Area of Expertise:
Evaluation & impact assessment

Client:
Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation, Department of Home Affairs (South Africa)

Date:
2016 - 2018

Country:
South Africa


The purpose of the evaluation was to understand why births are not registered within the first 30 days after birth and systematically uncover the constraints that hinder the registration of births within this legislated period.

The evaluation came up with three main recommendations to improve birth registration system. These were:

1. Promotion of the ERB programme’s strategic vision: Efforts to promote the strategic vision to register births as close to when they occur as possible should be reinforced and deepened. Genesis recommended that this be enhanced by facilitating strong partnerships between the involved stakeholders, particularly the Department of Home Affairs (DHA) and the Department of Health (DOH).

2. Strengthening the implementation of the strategic vision: This evaluation finds that the current MOU does not enable the achievement of the strategic vision. Therefore, the current MOU must be refined to better articulate the specific roles and responsibilities of DHA and DOH to ensure that the connected hospital footprint is strengthened and maintained.

This recommendation also focused on strengthening relationship with other  partners such as the Department of Social Development (DSD) to advance the registration of births of orphan and vulnerable children and children located in remote and marginalised communities. Finally, the recommendation was also directed at encouraging the establishment of an MOU between the DHA, DOH and the Department of Public Works (DPW) to elaborate on the roles and responsibilities contained within specific facility rental agreements to ensure that DHA office and HCF infrastructure is accessible and provides requisite comforts for mothers, babies and young children.

3. Improving the implementation and operability of the birth registration system: Genesis recommended that DHA should prioritise consolidating and maintaining the connected hospital footprint before continuing its expansion. In addition, DHA should improve the methodology by which targets are set to improve performance management and evidence-informed decision-making.

The South African birth registration system is complex. For this reason, Genesis used systems thinking for this evaluation to ensure that the evaluation considers the complex context within which the birth registration programme operates and how this environment affects the implementation of the DHA’s birth registration interventions.

With input from DHA officials, the programme theory of change was designed and used to better understand the DHA’s birth registration programme and its implementation. The analysis framework was guided by the OECD DAC evaluation criteria of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability to assist in the development and categorisation of the key evaluation questions.

The evaluation data collection methods included key informant interviews with a range of government stakeholders across national and provincial levels. Before the data collection process, the team underwent data collection training where they were capacitated with necessary skills to conduct interviews with public service users and officials.

Data was also collected from site observations at DHA offices and at healthcare facilities. This was guided by structured observation forms. A rubric was used to assess the quality of sites across multiple dimensions. During site observations, public service users (parents) were interviewed. The purpose of parents’ interviews was to gain an understanding of their experiences and perspectives relating to the national birth registration process.

Setting the baseline study for global digital development

Project name:
Global Digital Ecosystem Baseline Study

Service:
Monitoring and evaluation
Market systems development
Digital

Sector:
Public and Social

Client:
United Nations Foundation for Digital Impact Alliance

Date:
2017 - 2018

Country:
Global


Description Digital Impact Alliance (DIAL), an independent organisation established to engage and resolve barriers associated with integrating digital development and data in developing and emerging nations, engaged Genesis to undertake a global baseline study.

The purpose of the study was to inform DIAL’s results framework indicators and to provide additional insight into the experiences and interactions of these stakeholders. The focus of the study was on funders, technology specialists, governments, NGOs and implementers.

Through a robust methodology that included the use of an online survey distributed via various social media channels and an extensive key informant interview process, data was gathered and several general themes emerged from the findings.

These included an observed typology of ICT4D, gaps in funding for digital services, factors influencing the design of digital solutions, gaps in various actors’ capacity to use digital data and technology, and stakeholders’ awareness of, and experiences in implementing, the Principles for Digital Development.

Evaluation of credit aid to ailing SA municipalities

Project name:
Ex-post evaluation of the sixth credit line

Service:
Monitoring and evaluation

Sector:
Public and Social

Area of Expertise:
Evaluation & impact assessment

Client:
Large international donor organisation

Date:
2016

Country:
South Africa


A large international donor organisation has worked closely with a development finance institution since 1994, extending a number of credit lines aimed at uplifting historically disadvantaged people in South Africa. 

The objective of the most recent credit line was to provide finance to structurally weak municipalities in South Africa with the explicit aim of supporting the development of social infrastructure necessary for local economic development. 

Ultimately, the credit line did not achieve its stated objectives and experienced a number of challenges. Disbursement targets were not met, both in terms of the total credit line value and the amount that was required to go to the weakest municipalities.  

Genesis was contracted by the donor organisation to conduct an ex-post evaluation to understand what factors influenced the performance of the credit line, and ultimately to determine what could be improved in the design of future credit lines. 

Genesis used the OECD Development Assistance Committee’s (DAC) evaluation criteria as the guiding framework for the evaluation. In addition to the DAC criteria of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability, Genesis also considered the additionality of the donor organisation. 

Research methods included a thorough document and data review, key informant interviews with representatives of the development finance institution as well as other organisations in the municipal finance space, and site visits to selected municipalities that received finance through the credit line.  

Since the conclusion of the evaluation, the donor and development finance institution have been in discussions on the terms of the next line of credit, to improve on the previous credit line and spend donor money in a more effective and impactful way. 

Genesis has provided regular input into the negotiation phase for the next credit line, based on the findings and recommendations from the evaluation.

Top photo: Reservoir built in Makana Municipality using the municipal infrastructure loan facility

Environmental governance in mining is evaluated

Project name:
Implementation evaluation of effectiveness of environmental governance in mining

Service:
Monitoring and evaluation

Sector:
Mining
Public and Social

Area of Expertise:
Evaluation & impact assessment

Client:
Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation in the Presidency, Department of Enviromental Affairs

Date:
2014 - 2015

Country:
South Africa


The National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act No. 107 of 1998) (NEMA) is the legislative environmental framework in South Africa. It defines the environmental management approach that should be integrated across all sectors, including mining. 

Genesis Analytics and Digby Wells Environmental were contracted by the Department of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME), in partnership with the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), to conduct an implementation evaluation of environmental governance in the mining sector. The purpose was to assess the relevance and effectiveness of environmental legislation in mining and the implementation in achieving its objective.

Genesis developed a comprehensive evaluation framework based on the OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) criteria to guide the evaluation. 

The evaluation included a comprehensive literature review, interviews with relevant government stakeholders, NGOs, research institutions, legal firms, mining company representatives, industry bodies, local municipalities and four case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the environmental governance framework (Gauteng gold mining, Northern Cape asbestos mining, Mpumalanga coal mining and North West platinum mining).

The findings and analysis of the evaluation illustrated that in theory the environmental governance framework was appropriate for promoting good environmental governance in the mining sector. However, in practice the inadequate implementation and enforcement of the framework seriously compromised its efficacy and ability to ensure environmental sustainability. 

During the course of the evaluation, the legislation and regulations governing environmental governance in mining were revised, with the intention of creating a more harmonious framework for the environmental regulation of the mining industry. 

These changes aligned in many ways with the recommendations made during the evaluation, but their full effect has yet to be determined. This confirmed the relevance of the findings of the evaluation and provided evidence to continue to support initiatives already underway to improve the environmental governance framework and its implementation.

The evaluation team worked closely with the DEA to develop recommendations that were utility-focused and aligned to the department’s current environmental governance initiatives.

As a result of this iterative and collaborative process, the evaluation report, management response and improvement plan were formally endorsed by the Cabinet on 15 February 2017. 

The implementation of the evaluation’s recommendations will be monitored in line with the improvement plan as part of the Cabinet approval process. 

Cabinet approves evaluation of mining enviromental governance 

Financial evaluation of third National Lottery applicants

Project name:
Financial Evaluation of Third National Lottery Applicants

Service:
Regulatory economics and accounting

Sector:
Public and Social
Entertainment

Area of Expertise:
Socio-economic and regulatory impact assessment
Economic modelling

Client:
Minister of Trade and Industry

Date:
2014

Country:
South Africa


Every eight years the licence to operate the National Lottery is awarded to a successful bidder through a rigorous and lengthy tender process. After receiving conflicting recommendations from the Evaluation Committee and the National Lotteries Board, the Ministry of Trade and Industry brought in Genesis to conduct an independent and substantive evidence-based assessment of the financial and business models of the competing applicants.

The purpose was to assist the minister in selecting a successful (and reserve) bidder in order to negotiate and conclude a licence, and where the rationality and reasonableness of the decision would likely be under intense scrutiny.

Genesis used its experience to distil the key features of each business and financial models, and identify quantitative measures that would enable an independent evidence-based comparison across the bids on the five different variables that formed part of the assessment criteria. This included assessing a ranking on likely sales based on capex, distribution networks, prize payouts and new game development. It also included assessing financial solvency by subjecting the financial models to different revenue scenarios. In the process Genesis developed a robust new scoring method that built on the quantitative measures of the business and financial plans, but also built on the techniques applied in other government procurement programmes (such as relative points based on relative pricing).

The Genesis assessment provided the basis for the decision by the minister to select the successful bidder. Furthermore, the Genesis report and scoring have stood up to intense scrutiny as the minister’s decision has been subject to a number of reviews by one of the unsuccessful bidders. As such, the Genesis work has also proved invaluable to the High Court judges in adjudicating the litigation.

Meet the Team

Areas of Service Expertise

  • Economic impact assessment
  • Competition economics
  • Health systems strengthening
  • Health financing, costing and economics
  • Monitoring and evaluation
  • Regulatory economics
  • Trade

Related Sectors

Projects

Project

Unpacking key drivers of SA enterprise development success

We conducted a review of the Jobs Fund's enterprise development (ED) portfolio to capture lessons around which models work best and why. We broke down the programmes into five core elements, and identified four key success drivers in South Africa.

View Project
Project

Genesis counts cost of lifestyle diseases for Gauteng government

The Gauteng Office of the Premier’s Planning Division contracted Genesis Analytics to determine the health and financial effects of non-communicable diseases on Gauteng’s health system for 2017-2030 and to recommend policies and best practices to address the growing burden in Gauteng.

View Project

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Leading the team

Sydney Zharare

Partner (Agribusiness and Market Development)

Sydney Zharare
Partner (Agribusiness and Market Development)
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​Alyna Wyatt

Partner (Evaluation for Development)

​Alyna Wyatt
Partner (Evaluation for Development)
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Ryan Short

Partner (Shared Value)

Ryan Short
Partner (Shared Value)
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​Malcolm Pautz

Technical Expert

​Malcolm Pautz
Technical Expert
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Saul Johnson

Partner (Health)

Saul Johnson
Partner (Health)
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