Water

Water has been identified by the World Economic Forum (WEF) as the most significant area of global risk. Africa is particularly vulnerable, given the relatively low level of average annual rainfall, constrained access to clean and safe drinking water, and climate variability on the continent.

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Expertise Areas

Climate resilience

In the infrastructure sector, we prepare and appraise projects to mobilise finance for climate-resilient infrastructure projects that enhance and improve the resilience of poor or vulnerable communities, many of which are rural. 

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Financial and economic appraisal

We appraise the financial and economic viability of projects in order to provide our clients with a basis for data-driven decision-making. Financial appraisal entails an assessment of the cash flows of a project by estimating the project-related revenues and costs. Financial appraisal accounts for only part of the impact of a project. The appraisal of public and social projects is expanded to include impacts that have a broader effect than financial viability. We therefore extend our analysis to include the socio-economic costs and benefits associated with project implementation.

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Project preparation

We assist in the preparation of water sector infrastructure projects. Our contributions range from project definition, pre-feasibility, feasibility, project structuring, and financing, through to financial close. Our team assists clients in preparing and packaging water sector projects to enable successful project implementation that addresses the development needs of the communities that our projects serve.

Projects

Water for livelihoods in KAZA transfrontier area

Project name:
Water for Livelihoods: KAZA Transfrontier Conservation Area

Service:
Project appraisal

Sector:
Climate change
Water

Client:
Climate Resilience Infrastructure Development Facility (CRIDF), DFID

Date:
2014 - 2016

Country:
Namibia
Zambia
Zimbabwe


This project focuses on improving the livelihoods of local communities within and around the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA). KAZA is a SADC initiative that joins protected areas in five countries across two major transboundary river basins (the Okavango and Zambezi).

Genesis was retained to support CRIDF in their work in the KAZA TFCA, particularly in the design and implementation of small-scale water supply projects to build resilience across this transboundary region.

Human-wildlife conflict is severe in the dry season when people move to riverine areas to access water for domestic use, livestock watering and, in some cases, to irrigate their crops. The project’s aim was to design, fund and implement permanent water provisions away from these water sources and the risk of wildlife conflict.

Our role was the financial and economic appraisal of different infrastructure designs as well as affordability to ensure that communities are able to maintain the infrastructure in the long run. The team spent extensive time in remote locations in the KAZA area, carrying out livelihood and vulnerability assessments, and understanding the potential to create value chains to connect communities with formal markets. Through our economic analysis, CRIDF was able to align and benchmark various projects to ensure that they follow a programmatic and operationally sustainable means of building resilience in wildlife management zones.

For more project information from Zambia

For more project information from Zimbabwe

 ABOVE: Unprotected water sources in Zambia. BELOW: Working with smallholder farmers to increase their productivity through permanent water supply and irrigation.

ABOVE: Unprotected water sources in Zambia. BELOW: Working with smallholder farmers to increase their productivity through permanent water supply and irrigation.

Plan expands water supply to 25 000 Malawians

Project name:
Feasibility study on Illovo Nchalo Water Supply and Sanitation Project

Service:
Project appraisal

Sector:
Water
Infrastructure
Climate change

Client:
Climate Resilience Infrastructure Development Facility (CRIDF), DFID

Date:
2015 – ongoing

Country:
Malawi


Illovo Sugar Malawi wanted to improve the water supply for Nchalo town and the communities surrounding its sugar facility, which is an area characterised as very poor and lacking in clean water and sanitation.

Nchalo is in the Chikwawa district in the southern region of Malawi within which the Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) has jurisdiction over water supply infrastructure development and operations. A feasibility study was commissioned in response to the socio-economic challenges experienced in Chikwawa-Nchalo area.

With technical support from the Climate Resilient infrastructure Development Facility (CRIDF) in collaboration with Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), a PPP between Illovo and the SRWB was established in order to address the problem of access to safe water and improved sanitation in the area. Five options for the improvement of the water supply system and sanitation facilities in the area were considered.

The Genesis team did a cost-benefit analysis that determined a financial analysis of what would be the net return to the developer, and an economic analysis of what would be a net return to surrounding communities. Genesis’s analysis first resulted in the decision to proceed with the project. Secondly, and going beyond standard analysis and reverting to the engineers to help redesign the project to expand the water network to poorer communities not part of the original design, the Genesis team increased the economic impact of the project and its value for money.

The project is now expected to benefit an additional 12 000 people in the original target area. With the expansion to outlying villages, it is expected that 25 000 additional individuals in poorer, rural villages will also benefit from the project. Importantly, this will provide water for a growing population that would otherwise not have access to clean water. Formal access to water will have multiple benefits, primarily through improved sanitation and health and time savings, with the long-term benefits expected to be even larger.

SADC water and infrastructure projects

Project name:
Climate Resilience Infrastructure Development Facility (CRIDF)

Service:
Project appraisal
Transaction advisory

Sector:
Climate change
Infrastructure
Water

Area of Expertise:
Project preparation

Client:
A DFID-funded facility managed by Adam Smith International

Date:
2013 – ongoing

Country:
Malawi
Mozambique
Namibia
Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe


The Climate Resilient Infrastructure Development Facility (CRIDF) is a DFID-funded facility that prepares water and infrastructure projects across SADC. It focuses on projects that build climate resilience, are pro-poor and are located in one of the SADC region’s 13 transboundary water basins. Under the CRIDF, Genesis is involved in the design and delivery of water infrastructure that fosters sustainable development of the region’s water, food and energy security.

Our work focuses on:    

Financial and economic appraisal of projects in order to assess a project’s impact, inform decision-making and to ensure financial, operational and social sustainability.

Leveraging and mobilising finance to support CRIDF in high-level engagement with donors and potential financiers to identify potential sources of financing, as well as in preparing projects for presentation and conducting the actual engagements.  

Genesis supports the programme across multiple individual water-preparation projects. For example, together with the African Development Bank, we are currently engaged in a project to assess the commercial viability of a hydro-electric plant on the border of Malawi and Tanzania. The project aims to develop an effective financing strategy and assess the potential for attracting private sector investors through public-private partnerships.

The Genesis project economist is leading the development of the financial and economic models, assessing the likely returns and benefits from the project and working to structure it in a way that is attractive to the private sector, while retaining important socio-economic development goals of the respective governments.

TOP and ABOVE: Building climate resilience in the Eastern Province, Zambia, through the construction of a dam and small-scale irrigation scheme.

TOP and ABOVE: Building climate resilience in the Eastern Province, Zambia, through the construction of a dam and small-scale irrigation scheme.

Building a climate-compatible development business case

Project name:
Building the business case for investment in climate-compatible development (CCD)

Service:
Project appraisal
Monitoring and evaluation

Sector:
Climate change
Water

Client:
Climate and Development Knowledge Network

Date:
2015

Country:
Rwanda


The Climate Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) in Rwanda wanted to develop a business case for climate-compatible development in Rwanda.

The Genesis team visited project sites and reviewed the documentation of multiple climate-compatible development projects in the country to select those best suited for impact evaluations and building the business case. 

The team then developed the impact evaluation and cost-benefit analysis approaches for a selected number of these projects.

Early flood forecasting system for Incomati Basin

Project name:
Lower Incomati Flood Risk Management

Service:
Project appraisal

Sector:
Water
Infrastructure
Climate change

Area of Expertise:
Climate resilience

Client:
Climate Resilience Infrastructure Development Facility (CRIDF), DFID

Date:
2013 – 2017

Country:
Mozambique


The Incomati River Basin comprises 46 000 km² spanning South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique and is home to more than 500 000 people. 

The basin, particularly downstream in Mozambique, experiences frequent flooding. This results in considerable loss to the formal and informal economies. The impact of flooding is aggravated by a lack of resources to cope with disaster and a history of limited coordination in flood control and management.

As part of the Climate Resilient Infrastructure Development Facility (CRIDF), Genesis was engaged in the basin for three years to support holistic flood mitigation as the financial and economic adviser on the project. Specifically, our work in the final year was to evaluate various flood mitigation responses (FMRs) and recommend a way to proceed with the choice and financing of the infrastructure. Our work was integral in establishing the need for an early warning flood forecasting system (EWFFS) and its requirements for financial sustainability.

                                                                                                                                     © CRIDF

Genesis’s capping involvement on the project was a comprehensive economic analysis of the FMRs, which had emerged through a consultative process with stakeholders. These infrastructure interventions (dykes, bridges, etc.) involve the diversion of water away from key risk areas. As a result, some areas are better off, while others are worse off. An understanding of which areas are better and worse, as well as their associated economic values, is an important consideration in continuing with an intervention. 

Genesis carried out a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to assess whether investing in infrastructure was justified from a social-welfare perspective and to understand the distribution of benefits to stakeholders, the output of which led to a discussion on potential financing for the chosen investments. Genesis designed, championed and carried out an innovative and rigorous approach to this work, which is unique to any CBA we have carried out before. 

As a first step, a thorough land-use map of the flood area was carried out. The land was categorised in formal and subsistence agriculture, residential areas and roads, among others. By comparing the flood-hazard rating, generated by the hydraulic model of the “do-nothing” scenario, with that under the FRM, a picture of the potential cost savings under various FMR strategies was established. Assigning an economic value to the potential cost savings for each land-type was then compared with the actual costs of the intervention to assess whether the FMR was an efficient use of funds. 

The EWFFS has gone live and is available online and in real-time as a resource for decision-makers. The key project stakeholders include local government, the impacted community, the water utility and key private sector companies who are located in the areas impacted by flooding. The project is a case study for successful public-private partnership and collaboration to reduce the negative impact of flooding. 

Genesis aided this value being unlocked through detailing the “value chain” (users and processes) of the system (from forecasting to mobilisation), understating its costs and demonstrating the expected tangible benefits that can be unlocked through providing decision-makers with an early warning system that can inform their disaster mitigation response. This galvanised stakeholder coordination and support for its operational costs

For more information on the project

TOP PHOTOGRAPH: The site on the lower Incomati that floods frequently and has been the focus of one of the project's flood mitigation strategies.

Review of M&E frameworks for Helmsley Trust

Project name:
Quality assurance of M&E frameworks and project-level process evaluations for Helmsley Charitable Trust's Vulnerable Children projects

Service:
Monitoring and evaluation

Sector:
Public and social
Water

Area of Expertise:
Evaluation & impact assessment

Client:
The Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust

Date:
2014 - ongoing

Country:
Ethiopia
Ghana
Kenya


The Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust’s (Helmsley Trust’s) Vulnerable Children in sub-Saharan Africa Programme funds interventions that provide at-risk children with greater access to education, improved nutrition, and clean water and sanitation. As of August 2016, the USD 41-million programme had 18 implementing partners with interventions across sub-Saharan Africa. 

Given the magnitude and geographical reach of the programme, Helmsley Trust contracted Genesis to provide on-going monitoring and evaluation (M&E) support to five of the projects funded by the trust. The projects include Nuru Kenya, CRS Ghana, Water.org Kenya, Water.org Ghana and World Vision Ethiopia.

The first exercise was providing quality assurance of the projects’ M&E systems. Genesis undertook a comprehensive desktop review of the projects’ M&E systems and visited the project sites to understand their implementation in practice. 

On the basis of this, Genesis provided the projects with recommendations on how to improve their M&E systems so that they delivered consolidated and evidence-based reporting to inform decision-making and project implementation. Drawing on the findings from this process, Genesis provided Helmsley with an M&E guide to assist its grantees with developing their M&E systems.

Genesis has subsequently conducted implementation evaluations for Nuru Kenya and CRS Ghana and has planned similar evaluations for Water.org Kenya and Water.org Ghana. These evaluations reviewed the implementation of the projects and provided recommendations on how they could be more effectively implemented to achieve their objectives.

The final components of the assignment will be a summative evaluation of Water.org Kenya and Water.org Ghana, the provision of qualitative research support to Nuru Kenya and CRS Ghana and a strategic overview of the programme’s performance as a whole. For the most part, the recommendations on the M&E systems were well received and were implemented by the project teams. 

The implementation evaluations were well received by the project teams and the management responses confirmed the findings and recommendations. These will be used to inform the remainder of the projects’ implementation.

Download Ghana executive summary

Download Kenya executive summary


TOP: A Genesis evaluator explains 'pocket voting' to project staff and community leaders in Kpatia, in northern Ghana.  ABOVE: KWAHO's water distribution kiosk in Amimo village in Kenya.

TOP: A Genesis evaluator explains 'pocket voting' to project staff and community leaders in Kpatia, in northern Ghana. ABOVE: KWAHO's water distribution kiosk in Amimo village in Kenya.

Meet the Team

Areas of Service Expertise

  • Climate resilience
  • Financial and economic appraisal
  • Project preparation

Projects

Project

Water for livelihoods in KAZA transfrontier area

Genesis was retained to support CRIDF in their work to improve the livelihoods of local communities within and around the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA).

View Project
Project

Plan expands water supply to 25 000 Malawians

Illovo Sugar Malawi wanted to improve the water supply for Nchalo town and the communities surrounding its sugar facility, which is an area characterised as very poor and lacking in clean water and sanitation.

View Project

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Leading the team

​Malcolm Pautz

Principal (Infrastructure and PPP Advisory)

​Malcolm Pautz
Principal (Infrastructure and PPP Advisory)
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Kim Adonis

Manager

Kim Adonis
Manager
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Manyewu Mutamba

Senior Specialist (Climate Change)

Manyewu Mutamba
Senior Specialist (Climate Change)
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